Image list

  • Ubuntu https://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/releases/16.04/release/ .img是给QEUM和KVM用,.vhd是给Azure用,vmdk是给Vmware用。一般这些是在 OpenStack 这样的 IaaS 平台上面使用。这里描述如何在安装有 KVM 的普通 Linux 机器上面使用这些 Image。
  • Fedora https://cloud.fedoraproject.org/ Fedora cloud image,比 Ubuntu 兼容性好。
  • OpenSuse https://get.opensuse.org/leap/ Jeos is for cloud. Leap is normal version, Tumbleweed is rolling update. openSUSE MicroOS is a variant of openSUSE Tumbleweed and serves as a base of openSUSE Kubic, a Container as a Service platform. Guide of kubeadm’s installation container runtimes uses Tumbleweed. KVM and XEN version of JeOS image is cool: need interactive installation and it is fast. Doesn’t need extra disk for OS so boot image is enough. OpenStack-Cloud filesystem is xfs and 1G size. KVM and XEN filesystem is btrfs and 26G size. But Tumbleweed KVM version didn’t have igbvf driver. Crazy! Need zypper install kernel-default. It is 5.11.11. So what is stock or default kernel version?
  • Centos Stream https://cloud.centos.org/centos/
  • Rocky https://download.rockylinux.org/pub/rocky/8.4/images/
  • Linux Amazon Linux 2 https://aws.amazon.com/cn/amazon-linux-2/faqs/

Create VM

## Install a necessary packages 
$ sudo apt-get install kvm cloud-utils genisoimage 
## URL to most recent cloud image of 12.04 
$ img_url="http://cloud-images.ubuntu.com/server/releases/12.04/release" 
$ img_url="${img_url}/ubuntu-12.04-server-cloudimg-amd64-disk1.img" 
## download the image 
$ wget $img_url -O disk.img.dist 
## Create a file with some user-data in it 
$ cat > my-user-data <<EOF 
#cloud-config 
password: passw0rd 
chpasswd: { expire: False } 
ssh_pwauth: True
ssh_authorized_keys: 
  - ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADABUB... fan@fandeiMac.lan
EOF 
## Convert the compressed qcow file downloaded to a uncompressed qcow2 
$ qemu-img convert -O qcow2 download-disk.img disk.qcow2 
## create the disk with NoCloud data on it. 
$ cloud-localds my-seed.img my-user-data 
If not the command, run: genisoimage  -output seed.iso -volid cidata -joliet -rock user-data meta-data 
## Create a delta disk to keep our .orig file pristine 
$ qemu-img create -f qcow2 -b disk.qcow2 disk-new.img 
## Boot a kvm 
$ kvm -net nic -net user -hda disk.img -hdb my-seed.img -m 512

密码似乎不能用 123123 这种简单的。完整的 user-data spec 可以参考 http://cloudinit.readthedocs.io/en/latest/topics/examples.html,更多操作指南参考 KVM / libvirt。

对于 Centos Steam,上面配置无法 login,这里 的 cloud-init.iso 可以用。原因未知。

上面配置要是能设置 static IP 和 hostname 就好了,有点怀念 Vagrant。

网络

详细配置看 http://cloudinit.readthedocs.io/en/latest/topics/network-config-format-v2.html https://gist.github.com/smoser/635897f845f7cb56c0a7ac3018a4f476 这个提供了样例和调试的方法。 其中match的方法对于我来说没啥用,因为mac地址是virtual function interface动态生成的,不固定。用match driver igbvf,发现: Kernel driver name, corresponding to the DRIVER udev property. Globs are supported. Matching on driver is only supported with networkd.

找了一圈,只有Fedora用的是systemd networkd,其他用的都是/etc/network/interface 这种老式的方式。 但是其cloud-init log里面有错误:AttributeError: ‘NoneType’ object has no attribute ‘iter_interfaces’ 嗯,centos呢?也是一样的错误。发现 centos7 (kernel v3.10) vm 启动很快,比 ubuntu 16.04 快多了。16.04 cloud image hangs at first boot,原来这个和 TTY有关系。但是我看 virt-manager 默认已经帮我生成好了啊。又尝试了下 Debian cloud image,也很快。 仔细查看上面 v2 文档,发现其需要 netplan,这样只有 Ubuntu 17.10 支持了?v1 我试过是可以的,但是其只能用 mac 地址匹配。

为什么每次启动 vm 后其virtual function mac地址会变呢?算了,最后我还是自己修改 os 配置为静态 ip 地址。对于 Centos,要删除 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens3 文件里面的 HWADDR=xxx 和 BOOTPROTO=dhcp。

Resize image

Ubuntu cloud image default size is 2GB, you can use ‘qemu-img info a.img’ to check details. To resize it:

  1. You need to convert the qcow2 image to raw qemu-img convert -O raw guest.img guest.raw
  2. Then resize the raw file qemu-img resize guest.raw 10G
  3. Then convert it back to qcow2(this will create 1G file, 1G = 10G * 0.10) qemu-img convert -O qcow2 -o compat=0.10 guest.raw guest.img.10g
  4. Then run the guest and resize your file system

Using this way, ubuntu need lots of time to boot. It hang on “ systemd:started journal service”. I thought it was because I used virtIO disk or a small virtual image as disk. But at last it turn out Centos use xfs filesystem, after reboot, disk was enlarged.

Check snapshot file details:

fan@ubuntu-gg:~$ qemu-img info vm2.img
image: vm2.img
file format: qcow2
virtual size: 10G (10737418240 bytes)
disk size: 196K
cluster_size: 65536
backing file: ubuntu-16.04-server-cloudimg-amd64-disk1.img.10g
Format specific information:
    compat: 1.1
    lazy refcounts: false
    refcount bits: 16
    corrupt: false

It is small now but increase fast and soon it will be same size as original file.

Useful commands

virt-install --import --disk /var/lib/libvirt/images/focal-server-cloudimg-amd64-disk-kvm.img,bus=virtio --name vm1--ram 2000 --nographics

https://quantum-integration.org/posts/install-cloud-guest-with-virt-install-and-cloud-init-configuration.html –nographics option forces virt-install to redirect the console output to the terminal window. After successful boot you get to the vm promt:

For Debian, it will start an install dialog.

virt console vm to connect running vm. The default escape key - to exit: ^[ ( Ctrl + [ )

Installing a KVM Guest OS from the Command-line (virt-install) command reference

KVM Install from Console

virt-install -n nwtest --description Test -r 512 --vcpus 1 \ 
   --location http://ftp.ca.debian.org/debian/dists/squeeze/main/installer-amd64/ \ 
   --os-type=linux --os-variant=debiansqueeze\ 
   --disk /srv/virtual/nwtest,device=disk,bus=virtio,size=3 \ 
   --network bridge=br0,model=virtio \ 
   --autostart \ 
    --nographics \ 
   -x "console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200n8" 
Directly install from scratch, step by step. the location parameter specific kernel and initrd address. It is net-install indeed.

virsh domxml-to-native this command can convert virt instance into a vm creation command.